Dr. Luke CARSON
Stepping Back, Stepping Out and Moving Forward: SALCs as Drivers of Future Focused Education
In line with the conference theme of ‘New Beginnings’, this plenary takes the start of a new era, the Reiwa era in Japan, as its inspiration. Rather than focusing on a specific aspect of SALCs themselves, this discussion takes a step back from the day-to-day realities of working within and developing learning spaces, and focuses rather on larger movements happening in society, with a view to what these mean for what SALCs could or should be.
Exponential change and globalisation are powerful aspects of our present and future existence that arguably require significant adjustments to educational models. My talk will make the case for a transdisciplinary approach to understanding and tackling this situation from the prospective of learner development and future needs. This discussion will be situated in the cultural context of Japan and its educations systems.
In their short history in Japan, SALCs have been a driver for educational change. Although no two SALC are the same, this plenary makes the argument that they can play a central role in promoting and developing future-focused education within their institutions.
Slides are available here.
Rumi TERAO & Andrew D. TWEED
Supporting Students Through a More Inclusive Language Policy
In this talk, the presenters will share their experiences of changing a SALC from an English-only to an English-first language policy. They will begin by talking about the original policy and the problems that it caused. Following that, the presenters will share the newer, English-first policy. The English-first policy has resulted in positive changes in the SALC. Their discussion will focus on specific actions, involving bilingual materials and communication strategies, that were implemented in conjunction with the policy. Time will be included at the end for questions and answers.
Slides are available here.
Nagisa YANAGITA & Kurumi MIYAMOTO
New Project “e-confidence” (student presentation)
In this presentation, we, the student staff at our self-access center, will talk about our new project “e-confidence” which we decided to start to get more students who are interested in improving their English skill come to our self-access center and gain confidence. A lot of students say “I don’t know what to talk about in English and I don’t know how to study English”, “I should study for TOEIC, but I don’t feel like it”. We will talk about the details of our project and our survey results.
Understanding Promotion and Prevention Systems in Motivation: Implications for Advising and Teaching
This presentation draws from regulatory focus theory and introduces its motivational systems—promotion and prevention (Higgins, 1997; Scholer & Higgins, 2012)—which offer a useful lens for identifying and addressing motivational difficulties in a meaningful way. These two systems will be described in detail, including trade-offs, relative strengths and weaknesses, and implications in self-access learning and advising. Further, solo and group tasks that benefit from each type of motivational system will be identified, along with examples of how to identify learner motivational profiles, then introduce and apply affective and meta-affective strategies to support the control and management of each system.
Alexander WORTH, Chris CLADIS, EADES, Misato TACHIBANA, Nanami NAKAGAWA, Olli Jesperi VUORINEN, & Toshiharu YAMASHIMA
From Zero to Hero: How We Increased the Users of Our ‘Free Conversation’ Service (included student presenters)
Areas or services where learners of English can gather to talk with a teacher in unstructured ‘free conversation/talk’ are a feature of many Self Access Learning Centers and similar institutions around Japan. The presenters will share the measures they took to increase the number of users of their underused ‘Free Conversation’ service at a SALC based in a technology university in Japan. The SALC team began with the goal of encouraging more users and, in turn, fostering a stronger sense of community during the ‘Free Conversation’ sessions that would lead to an increase in the number of users of the SALC as a whole.
Yo HAMADA, Nanako TOYOSHIMA, Kanna SATO, Satoko ITO
Our New Project: English Marathon and ALL Rooms (included student presenters)
In this presentation, the managing professor and the student workers who have joined and managed a project called English Marathon will report the following five topics: 1) The English Marathon schedule; 2) Our hand-made English camp; 3) Our daily service and advice to the participants as mentors; 4) Results of the TOEIC scores; 5) Actual experiences of the English Marathon. This will be beneficial to the audience if they would like to plan their own English marathon by using their SAC, and that they will learn what needs to be done to get successful results.
Hikaru SASAKI, Hikari TAKENAKA, Marumi TERASAWA, Kodai KANEKO
What Student Staff can Develop for NINJA (student presentation)
The purpose of this research is to find out points of how we can improve our NINJA—a kind of SALC—through surveys from session users and student staff (NINJA Cast). First, we will explain what services students can receive from NINJA and how the NINJA Cast works on providing opportunities for language learning to students. Then, we will observe each session provided for students in the light of the surveys and feature one user’s opinion of those sessions. Moreover, we will explain what the NINJA Cast has learned from being a core part of NINJA. Lastly, we will propose some possibilities for NINJA.
Slides are available here.
Tom STRINGER & Craig MERTENS
Enhancing EFL Student Motivation for Greater Self-Access Learning
First-year university students in compulsory EFL learning environments may lack intrinsic motivation to study language properly, let alone use a SAC. This research presentation overviews a currently on-going, control group pilot study in which exchange students are invited to join group work and tasks in freshmen English Speaking classrooms multiple times throughout a course. Data collected so far suggests that these interventions have the potential to increase intrinsic motivation in language learning and SAC usage.
Robert WERNER, Lucius VON JOO, & Suzune SUGA
Expanding the Reach of SACs: Finding Opportunities for Bridge Building on Campus
We would like to start a dialogue on new ways SACs might be utilized through programs that build bridges with diverse campus groups, such as student clubs, official sports teams, and other affiliations. This presentation will discuss how such programs were designed and implemented, taking into account the needs of groups of students who had not previously been active SAC users. We will include examples and ways our model might be adapted for other contexts. We invite participants to engage in a dialogue to explore possibilities in campus connections.
Slides are available here.
Introducing New Roles for Student Workers: An Administrator’s Approach
Our Self-Access-Learning-Center, Global Plaza, has introduced a new system which assigned different roles to each student worker in order to provide a better quality working experience and give workers an opportunity to establish ownership. By observing their work ethic before and ten months after introducing the system, it has become evident that in their enthusiasm and responsibilities workers have changed. This presentation is intended to highlight the change of
student workers’ values towards the job and the growth of their responsibilities by reflecting on the feedback from the workers and their comparisons of the previous and current system.
Jo MYNARD & Scott J. SHELTON-STRONG
New Beginnings for Teachers and Learners: Tapping into Emotions in Self-Access Learning (workshop)
Understanding and managing emotions that affect one’s learning is a fundamental skill in becoming an autonomous learner. However, many learners and teachers are not experienced in engaging effectively in the process of understanding the affective side of learning. During this workshop, the presenters will briefly introduce the role of emotions in learning, and then share a range of tools that can be used to tap into emotions to promote autonomy. These tools take the form of worksheets and activities which can be used in classrooms or self-access environments to promote an awareness and control of emotions that affect learning.
A Fresh Perspective for “How Do I Improve My English”
From time to time it is important to re-evaluate our beloved programs to ensure that our methods and guidance are up-to-date and reflect current practices. As student interests change, so must our advice evolve. At our facility, we have employed How Do I Improve My English (HDIIME) consultants to document new language learning plans based on their experience and student input. These plans are designed for English language learners but the techniques are applicable to acquiring and sustaining any language. We begin anew with fresh perspectives incorporating not only websites but also phone apps and other resources while retaining the best of our former practices to ensure students make meaningful progress.
Stuart WARRINGTON & Andre PARSONS
Looking Through Borrowed Lenses: Toward a Definition of Learner Advisor Autonomy
This presentation aims to address a gap in the literature by initially examining three definitions of teacher autonomy as proposed lenses to making sense of learner advisor autonomy. These include professional freedom, professional development and the interconnectedness between teacher and learner and their mutual and simultaneous
development. Thereafter, as a means to giving learner advisor autonomy a ‘face’, narratives within our respective advising practices will be explored through the aforesaid lenses. Finally, the implications and future directions of defining learner advisor autonomy for the ‘learner advisor self’ will be discussed along with the underlying identities of which it is comprised.
Elizabeth LAVOLETTE & Matthew CLAFLIN
Is it a SALC? A Case Study of the Global Commons at Kyoto Sangyo University
Self-access language centers (SALCs) and US-style language centers (LCs) have common origins and a common current focus on social interaction. However, misperceptions of SALCs and US-style LCs may be impeding cross-citation between their literatures. Clarifying what SALCs and US-style LCs have in common and how they differ may begin to change perceptions.
The presenters will provide conventional definitions of each type of center and typical examples. Then, they will explain the history and current status of the language center at Kyoto Sangyo University as an example to probe the boundaries of the definitions and further clarify them.
Slides are available here.
Poster Session 1
Self-Access Learning Center Challenge: Balancing Human Resources, Student Demand, and Scheduling Considerations for Academic Advising and Conversation Practice
The Global Teaching Institute (GTI) at Tokyo International University has two areas, Academic Advising (AA) and English Lounge (EL), where students can interact with faculty and high-proficiency peers outside of class in at Self-Access Learning Center called The English Plaza. With fifty faculty members and 26 student staff, human resources are limited as TIU has an approximate student population of 4,800 on Campus 1; 2,000 students major in English or take English content-based courses. Balancing human resources, student demand, and scheduling considerations are a challenge, and these three facets will be discussed.
A Comparison of Two Social Areas
In speaking practice centers, students can make appointments to meet one-on-one with a teacher or a learning advisor in order to develop their oral language skills. Alternatively, students can sit down with conversation partners or other students to converse freely on sofas without making an appointment in advance. From the presenter’s experiences, learners are drawn to these social spaces for various reasons. While both spaces present opportunities to use the target
language, their arrangements exhibit particular affordances and constraints. In this research presentation, I will show my conclusions from comparing these two spaces in order to reveal their unique qualities.
Chelsea SCHWARTZ & Jarwin MARTIN
Academic Advising in Self-Access Learning
This presentation will demonstrate the significance of academic advising in the self-access environment. Students often need clear and supportive guidance in attaining their academic goals. Once advised, this can help assist them in being more autonomous in fulfilling their goals. This presentation aims to share some ideas that can be utilized in academic advising.
Chris POND & Scot MATSUO
Enhancing Student Participation and Experience in Newly Constructed Self-Access Centers
This presentation reports on efforts made in enhancing student participation and experience across two newly constructed SACs at a private university in the Kansai area. These SACs, across two Campuses, are still in their infancy, and as the foundations for the culture of the centers are being laid the students’ participation is increasing. This presentation will focus on the opportunities provided for student self-access learning as well as students’ own experiences of using the facilities. Through access to communication rooms, cultural events, and learning support, we will show how teachers, staff, and students collaborated to create a vibrant self-access language learning environment.
Hoey LIU, Ryuhei IKEDA, & Ayaka SATAKE
Internship at E-CO (student presentation)
English Café at Otemon (E-CO) is a self-access centre at Otemon Gakuin University, which started an Internship Programme in Spring Semester 2018. To date, four students have taken part in this programme, learning administrative skills, organizing events and conducting research. In this poster presentation, interns will present the structure of the internship, their experiences, and discuss what they have learned by joining the internship. The greatest benefit of the ECO Internship is that you can learn workplace skills and even get credits for it.
Phoebe LYON, Ewen MACDONALD, & Nicholas THOMPSON
Assessing the Impact of Encouraging Language Majors in Japan to Partake in Linguistic Risk-taking Activities
This presentation summarises the rationale, background, methods and preliminary findings of an adaptation of a linguistic risk-taking passport initiative at a Japanese university. The aim is to encourage students to take various risks to build their confidence during their language learning journeys. The level, nature and frequency of linguistic risks taken by students was investigated, as well as students’ anxiety and confidence levels, willingness to communicate and their
strategies for managing emotions. Initial findings indicated that many students were able to discover new opportunities for practicing English and felt more comfortable and confident using English and taking risks.
English Shop by Student Staff: Bringing my Experience in Study Abroad into the Event (student poster)
In this presentation, an activity developed at a self-access center while I was a student staff member will be presented and it is based on challenges I had in ordering food during my own study abroad. The goal of the activity is to have participants learn to order and serve food in English, for example in a café or ice cream shop. I will discuss the evolution of this activity, which was revised 4 times over the course of 2 semesters, revisions which led to a more practical focus and I look forward to other ideas and suggestions from attendees.
Poster Session 2
Effective Ways to Study IELTS at the Self-Access Learning Center
At Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), many students apply for Exchange programs every year. In order to enter these programs, students must work really hard to improve their English skills, so many students visit the language advisors to get some advice at the SALC. As a language advisor, I strongly recommend them to take the IELTS test because by studying the IELTS, they can not only enter the program but also improve their practical English skills. In this session, I would like to share my IELTS advising and teaching at the SALC as a language advisor.
Anna TWITCHELL, Heather YODER, Bethan KUSHIDA, & Jeffrey GONCALVES
Passport to Success: Students’ Preferred Tasks for Linguistic Risk-Taking
This poster will present the results of a pilot study conducted at a private Japanese university. Inspired by an earlier study at the University of Ottawa and adapted for a monolingual EFL context, participants with a “risk-taking passport” chose from a list of in-class and out-of-class tasks that provided opportunities to use the target language. This presentation will focus on the tasks that participants chose to do and will analyze which tasks appealed to learners based on data collected from passport responses and participant interviews. Discussion will include implications for how teachers may encourage
students to take linguistic risks.
Yuri IMAMURA & Isra WONGSARNPIGOON
Nurturing Learners’ Use of an English Speaking Area in a Multilingual Space
This presentation describes ongoing research on usage of an English speaking area located within a multilingual space at a self-access center in a university specializing in language studies. The research focuses on the effectiveness of events for promoting English usage in the area and raising awareness of its purpose. We also investigated learners’ attitudes about the events, the area, and their own language use. Preliminary results from questionnaire and interview data are
introduced. They can aid educators who aim to support or establish environments for learners’ English speaking or who are interested in target language usage in language-learning spaces.
Poster is available here.
Encouraging Greater SAC Use: A Case Study of Instructor-Led Activities Designed for Students in the Department of Child Education at Hokuriku Gakuin University
In order to encourage students towards greater engagement with Hokuriku Gakuin’s English Center, new instructor-led activities are being designed and implemented. Based on survey results from first-year students in the Department of Childhood Education, student-perceived needs and interests were identified. This presentation reports on the ongoing implementation of activities responding to these needs and interests. Participation in such activities has the potential to not only improve English ability but also aid in the development of skills useful for future teachers. Whether or not
relevance to a particular course of study acts as a motivating factor for engagement is also discussed.
Yuka SAKUMA, Mami OKAWA, & Risa MATSUI
How to increase the Number of ”e-space” Users (student poster)
The ‘e-space’ is the self-access English learning space in Konan Women’s University and as student staff, we noticed a smaller number of sophomore and junior students in the e-space and took steps to increase the number of e-space users, especially among 2nd and 3rd year students. We first researched the current situation through a survey questionnaire and I will present that data. Next, I will talk about what we did in the e-space to increase the number of student users, and share what changes we saw. I hope to have further suggestions and ideas from the attendees.
Student Forum: Meeting, Sharing, and Growing
In this forum, SAC student staff from five universities who participated in the Student Conference* will present posters about the progress of the action plans they set in October to improve their respective SACs. Then, there will be an open discussion session where students can meet, share and exchange ideas about various issues related to SAC operations as student staff. This forum is open to everyone. Students who did not participate in the Student Conference are very welcome to join. We recommend teachers and administrative staff to come see as we can learn a lot from hearing students’ voices directly. Presenting schools are Ritsumeikan University Biwako Kusatsu Campus, Otemon Gakuin University, Konan Women’s University, Ritsumeikan University Osaka Ibaraki Campus, and Kyoto University of Foreign Studies.
*Over 70 participants (40 students from 13 different universities) gathered at SAC Student Conference in October.
Sara Beth FERGUSON
Accessing the Creative Self: A Framework for Encouraging Innovative L2 Expression
This presentation explores the integration of a pioneering framework for creative expression within the Self-Access Center (SAC) of a private Japanese business university. The speaker provides an argument for the practical application of scaffolded, theory-based learning activities that promote creative development, increase learner engagement, and develop higher-order thinking skills in students. The speaker argues that successful creative assignments lower affective learning barriers and increase intrinsic motivation, allowing students to more freely develop their unique “voice” in a second language. Creative writing, reading, speaking, and listening activities will be discussed.
Free Mobile Game for High-Frequency Vocabulary – The Science of Uncertain Rewards and Dopamine (commercial presentation)
This presentation will describe a free mobile game that teaches high-frequency vocabulary for General English, TOEIC, TOEFL, EIKEN, SAT, GRE and other important corpus domains. The pedagogical approach employed combines pair-associate learning with certain and uncertain psychological rewards specifically designed to produce bursts of dopamine, a powerful neurotransmitter associated with joy, motivation, and long-term memory retention in the hippocampus. The presenter will introduce and review the science and research behind this approach and describe how and why it produces amazingly fast comprehension level increases for Japanese students.
Freedom or Focus? Approaches to Fostering Autonomous Learners
This presentation describes two teaching interventions aimed at developing first-year university students’ capacity to take control of their own learning: 1) setting individual goals and identifying learning activities; 2) choosing activities from a range and trying them in class.
I will briefly outline student response to the two interventions, on the basis of data collected and personal observation. I will also discuss the relative merits of setting individual learning goals and classroom-based experiential learning, arguing that the freedom to choose and experiment can be highly motivating, and a necessary precursor to the development of self-directed learning.
Slides are available here.
Designing an Independent Language Learning System
Using technology effectively allows teachers to meet the students’ different needs in language learning and keep track of their improvement. This session will explore one approach to enhance Japanese university students’ motivation and engage them in independent learning by using Microsoft Office OneNote and some gamification techniques at Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU). First, the presenter will give an overview of the independent language learning scheme at APU. Then, the students’ study logs on the self-directed learning system will be presented. The findings from surveys and specific suggestions will be shown related to designing an effective independent language learning system using Microsoft Office OneNote.
Participatory Student Research as Self-Access Learning
Engaging students in participatory research into their learning and their educational context is a valuable self-access learning activity. Firstly, students can gain insights into their learning preferences, motivations and challenges, and strengthen their learner identity. Secondly, conducting research transforms our relationship with knowledge from a dependence on the authority of institutions to learner autonomy of a radical kind. Therefore, engaging students in
research can serve an emancipatory agenda. Finally, such activities produce context specific knowledge that can lead to improvements in the educational context. In this presentation, I describe a participatory inquiry conducted with student ‘co-researchers’ at Akita International University.
Keisuke HARADA, Natsuko KITAGAWA, Bartosz WOLANSKI, & Masako WAKISAKA
The Tandem Learning Program in Kyushu University: Recent Outcomes and Future Challenges
We present about the Tandem learning program conducted in 2019 in Kyushu University as an extracurricular activity, with over 230 applicants. Tandem learning is a method of language study in partner pairs based on learner autonomy and reciprocity. First, we show the outline of our program, and discuss the learning approaches taken by the participants. We also report the survey results showing that the learners experienced a positive change in their cultural perspectives.
Finally, we discuss the need to encourage setting goals and to manage learning plans in order to provide participants with a more meaningful learning experience.
Tetsushi OHARA & Ryo MIZUKURA
Articulating the Role of the Self-Access Learning Center in a Translingual Environment
This study explores the role of the Self-Access Learning Center (SALC) in a multilingual environment by analyzing how two Japanese students engage in their own language learning and use through their experiences in the SALC at a Japanese university. This research employs a narrative framework to qualitatively investigate their experiences in the SALC. The results indicate that the SALC functions as a social learning space constructed by diverse people and their multidimensional relationships through translanguaging and translingual identity. This finding provides pedagogical implication for the SALCs in Japan where the socio-cultural diversity has advanced to encourage more autonomous language learning and activities.
Tomoko ETO, Kevin TANG, Kiyu ITOI, & Misato SAUNDERS
Fostering Independent Learners: A Classroom-based Learner Training
Language learners need to enhance their ability to learn. However, they do not have sufficient opportunities for training. To address this issue, a classroom-based learner training framework using a personal notebook with four types of intervention was designed for an English language program at a mid-sized private Japanese university. After a onesemester-long implementation of this framework, a survey was conducted with 152 respondents. The presentation will discuss this classroom-based learner training and share the survey results on the students’ perceptions and preferences regarding their independent learning. Based on these findings, the presentation will conclude with suggestions for classroom-based learner training.
Session 8 – Day 2
Incentivising SAC Use: The Role of Different Reward Schemes in Service Uptake at a Self-Access Centre
Many self-access centres (SACs) offer incentive programmes such as stamp cards for using the facilities. However, studies conducted by Self Determination Theory researchers reveal that rewards can undermine learners’ intrinsic motivation, unless they fulfil certain conditions (Ryan & Deci, 2017).
This presentation examines the role of incentives by analysing data from SAC conversation session use from students enrolled in different incentive programmes over three years, and survey data from a section of the participants. Suggestions will be made as to how to design optimal incentive programmes for encouraging intrinsically motivated SAC use.
Can Learning Also Be Fun? Current and Future Considerations for Digital Game-Based L2 Learning
Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) is a popular research topic within the realm of self-access L2 learning, with intrinsic and extrinsic motivation potential. DGBL and Self-Access Language Learning emphasize learner engagement, and using DGBL, we can support self-access in a way that is attractive to students. However, DGBL has shortcomings, notably bridging the gap between effective learning and entertainment. To present the relationship between DGBL and selfaccess, this presentation will first provide a background of DGBL, followed by update on the current status of DGBL, and will end with the possibilities of gaming in self-access learning and how these can be leveraged.
Peers Helping Peers: Daily Management of the English PLAZA
Since the creation of the Self-Access Learning Center called The English PLAZA (EP) at Tokyo International University in 2013, student interns have been managing every aspect of this facility. The interns provide three essential services: they greet fellow students and guests at the information counter where they lend laptops and make reservations for study rooms; monitor the main floor and talk to students; and provide beverages for students in the Oregon Café.
This presentation will focus on three challenges: communication between faculty advisors, interns, and administrative staff; creating useful training modules; and ensuring that guests follow the rules of the EP.
The Development of Peer Collaboration and Learner Autonomy in Online Social Networking Spaces
This talk presents a study on how the integration of online social networking spaces in self-access learning contexts can provide opportunities for learners to expand their horizons, gain experience in negotiating content, discover new resources and develop critical literacy skills; all necessary components of becoming life-long learners (Peeters, 2015; Reinhardt, 2019; Sato & Ballinger, 2016). After introducing the necessary steps on how a successful network of peers can be built, we address the pitfalls both teachers and learning advisors might experience when setting up these online spaces, as well as the ways learners appreciate and evaluate these online collaboration opportunities.
Transitioning into an Advisor
In the presentation transitioning into a learning advisor, the presenter will discuss the changes he experienced by shifting from the role of a teacher to one of a learning advisor. Additionally, he will share what he has found useful in the fields of motivational and developmental psychology in the transition. The aims of this presentation are to inform those who would like to learn more about advising, as well as to provide aspiring and practicing advisors with another lens to view the role.
Slides are available here.
Maria de la Paz Adelia PEÑA CLAVEL
A Theoretical Proposal for Conceiving Mexican SALCs into Learning Ecosystems
Mexico began its path in Self-Access Language Learning in 1990. In the beginning, Mexican self-access learning centres found their pedagogical paradigm on the theory and applications to foster autonomy in language learners provided by CRAPEL and the British Council. In this talk, I will show the evolution of the SALCs in Mexico, considering the definitions of autonomy and a systemic angle. Then, I will explain the elements that composed an ecosystem to eventually present a proposal of a SALC as a malleable learning ecosystem in its administration and methodology to develop learner autonomy.
Slides are available here.
本発表ではリアタイムでインタラクティブな学習が可能な日本語遠隔コースの受講者を対象とする。コース開 始時から実施した縦断的調査をもとに、修了できた3つの事例から、オンラインのセルフアクセス言語学習にお ける動機づけの変容を分析する。学習者の自己、オンラインの文脈、オフラインの文脈という3つの観点から動 機づけを分析した結果、ノンフォーマルなオンライン学習の開始、進行、継続の動機づけ要因が明らかになっ た。
Discovering the Roles of the Language Learning Advisor: My Personal Journey
Mynard and Navarro (2010) describe a learning advisor as an educator who works for individual learners in self-access learning centers without teaching in a classroom. My own experience as a learning advisor suggests that many young learners have not had enough experience to solve communication troubles in life, making it necessary to guide students to understand themselves and manage their feelings, a task that requires flexibility and an expansion of the advisor’s roles. In this presentation, I will explore how unfamiliar roles have emerged for meeting students’ needs and provide some useful activities that may be employed to improve the current situation.
Managing a University English Club as an Advisory Instructor
A well-managed university club has a good balance between education and enjoyment. In this presentation, the speaker will share his experience managing a university English club as a volunteer advisory instructor for over 5 years. Being an open club at a national university, it attracts students from different departments who vary widely in ability level. Since this club has a diverse membership, there are challenges. This presentation will explain the responsibilities of an advisory instructor and explore the main issues this club has experienced as well as the steps employed to keep the participants encouraged and the club motivated.
Analysis of Reward and Motivation Systems in Commercial and Non-Profit Self-Access Learning Systems
The high demand for language proficiency skills and the increased usage of smartphones has created a large commercial market for language learning. Many of these systems utilize some type of reward scheme in order to motivate their users and increase the enjoyability of using their products. This presentation will attempt to survey and classify the different types of reward systems in use and discuss the concept of gamification and its history. Finally, this presentation will offer suggestions as to how these systems can be adapted for use in an academic context and in university self-access learning centers.
Takaya HAYASHI & Zhenyan CAI
本研究では、大学の課外活動としての対面式タンデム学習プロジェクトを取り上げる。ペアが顔合わせをし、 学習目標や計画、初回の学習内容や方法を決めるところまではコーディネーターが関与するが、その後の学習 活動は参加者に任される。本発表では、タンデム学習への参加者が学習開始後にどのように学習を進めていく のか、また、目標や学習方法の変更が必要な場合は、どのように変化させていくのかについて考察する。
Newcomer Grant Recipients